To get a good harvest tomatoes need quality care. One of its stages is foliar feeding of tomatoes. Processing is carried out at all stages of plant development. For this purpose, minerals and natural remedies are used.
Sheet top dressing means for tomatoes no less than watering. For its implementation, special solutions are used, which are sprayed on the leaves and stems of plants.
To obtain the maximum effect from feeding you need to follow a number of rules:
- the procedure is performed in the morning or in the evening, better in cloudy weather, when there are no direct sunlight;
- the spraying solution is prepared according to the specified norms in order to avoid leaf burn;
- when processing plants in open ground, the absence of wind and rain;
- after spraying, the greenhouse is aired;
- Chemical fertilizers are applied in compliance with safety regulations.
Benefits of foliar nutrition
Foliar treatment is more effective than root dressing. If watering is carried out, then microelements take time to get to the leaves and buds. After spraying, beneficial substances fall on the leaves and stems, so they immediately begin to act.
Foliar top dressing tomato has several advantages:
- the land part of plants develops;
- increased resistance of tomatoes to diseases and adverse factors;
- stimulates the appearance of ovaries, which increases yield;
- low consumption of components compared to irrigation;
- the ability to use complex fertilizers (organic and mineral substances, folk remedies).
Tomatoes need spraying throughout the development period. If the plant is in a depressed state and slowly develops, then additional processing is allowed.
Foliar top dressing of tomatoes is performed in the following steps:
- before planting plants for the treatment of acidic soil;
- during the growing season;
- before flowering tomato;
- during the formation of the ovary;
- with fruiting.
At each stage of development, plants require different substances. Saplings for the formation of shoots need nitrogen contained in urea. Boric acid contributes to the appearance of ovaries. Potash fertilizers are responsible for the taste and appearance of the fruit.
The best ways of feeding
Foliar nutrition is carried out with the use of mineral substances. On the basis of their preparing an aqueous solution for spraying. Mineral feeding is one of the best ways of processing, since it feeds tomatoes with essential trace elements.
Urea is 46% nitrogen, which is involved in the photosynthesis of plants. With a shortage of this element, their growth slows down, the leaves turn yellow, the ovary slowly forms. Treatment of tomatoes with urea contributes to the formation of foliage, strengthens the roots, and also increases the fruiting period.
Urea is supplied in the form of granules, soluble in warm water. The solution is quickly absorbed by plants and does not cause burns while respecting the proportions. The amount of nitrogen in tomatoes rises after two days.Tip! Spraying solution contains 50 g of urea per 10 liters of water.
Foliar urea dressing is carried out before the formation of ovaries. Otherwise, the plant will send the resulting substances not to fruiting, but to form new shoots. During the growth of seedlings enough 0.4% solution of urea.
Due to boric acid, the flowering of tomatoes is activated and the ovary is shed. With increased humidity, boric acid protects the fruit from rotting. As a result, increases the yield of tomatoes.
Processing of tomatoes is carried out in several stages:
- before flowering, when the buds have not yet opened;
- with active flowering;
- when the fruits begin to blush.
The second feeding of tomatoes with boric acid is carried out 10 days after the first spraying. It is allowed to conduct additional boron treatment if the tomatoes have small pale leaves or do not bloom well.Important! The concentration of the boric acid solution depends on the treatment objectives.
To avoid shedding of the inflorescences, 1 g of the substance is taken, which is dissolved in 1 l of hot water. After cooling the product can be used for spraying.
To protect tomatoes from phytophthora, one teaspoon of boric acid is taken to a bucket of warm water. 1 liter of the solution consumes 10 square meters. m landing area.
Potassium monophosphate is produced in the form of colorless crystals, well soluble in water. The substance contains the optimal amount of potassium and phosphorus, which are necessary for effective fruiting.
Potassium monophosphate has the following advantages:
- quickly absorbed by tomatoes and stimulates metabolic processes;
- compatible with other minerals;
- it is impossible to overfeed the plants;
- has no similar effects;
- used to prevent fungal infections of tomatoes.
Spraying with potassium monophosphate is carried out twice:
- before the start of bud formation;
- with fruiting.
There should be at least 2 weeks between treatments. Additional processing with potassium monophosphate is allowed after heavy rains, when mineral components are washed out of the soil.
The composition of calcium nitrate includes nitrogen and calcium. Calcium improves the assimilation of nitrogen by tomatoes, which is necessary for the formation of green mass.Important! Calcium is especially useful for tomatoes grown on acidic soils.
With a lack of calcium, the root system suffers, and tomato resistance to temperature drops and diseases decreases.
Calcium nitrate has been used for spraying tomatoes. This includes the preparation of a solution consisting of 1 l of water and 2 g of this substance. The first processing of the sheet is performed a week after the plants are moved to the ground. Then the procedure is repeated every 10 days until the beginning of budding.
After spraying, seedlings acquire resistance to vertex rot. Fertilizer repels slugs, ticks and other pests. Resistance to diseases tomatoes remain in adulthood.
Use of superphosphate
Superphosphate includes phosphorus, which accelerates fruiting, improves the taste of tomatoes, slows down the aging process of plants.
The lack of this element is characterized by the presence of dark green leaves and rusty spots on the tomatoes. Such symptoms are observed after a cold snap, when phosphorus absorption deteriorates. If the temperature of the tomatoes does not improve with increasing temperature, then they feed the tomatoes with superphosphate.Tip! For spraying prepare a working solution consisting of 20 tablespoons. substances and 3 liters of water.
The dissolution of superphosphate occurs only in hot water. The resulting solution in an amount of 150 ml must be diluted with 10 liters of water and used for spraying. In order to assimilate phosphorus better, add 20 ml of nitrogen-containing substance to the solution.
Phosphorus is required for tomatoes to form fruits. Therefore, in the greenhouse, foliar feeding of tomatoes is carried out with the appearance of inflorescences.
Top dressing by epin
Epin is a phytohormone obtained by chemical means. The substance has a strengthening effect on tomatoes and improves their ability to withstand stressful situations (heat, frost, disease).
Epin has a mild impact, because it is aimed at activating the strength of tomatoes. Its use increases the yield, even on land with low fertility.
Important! Epine consumption is 6 drops per 1 liter of water. At 100 square meters. meters of planting requires up to 3 liters of solution.
The first treatment with epin is performed a day after planting a permanent place. The tool helps seedlings to take root and protects them from disease. The following treatments are carried out in the formation of buds and flowering of the first brush.
Natural top dressing
Satisfy tomatoes with nutrients help folk remedies. Their advantage is complete safety and ease of use. The most effective feed of tomatoes on the basis of ash, whey, garlic and herbal infusions. Popular methods allow you to feed the tomatoes without chemicals and complex fertilizers.
Ash Based Solution
Wood ash serves as a source of calcium, magnesium, potassium and other elements for tomatoes. The fertilizer does not use the products of burning plastic, household and construction waste, colored paper.Important! Spraying tomatoes with ash is especially effective after a cold snap or prolonged rains.
10 liters of water requires 100 g of ash. The solution is infused for 24 hours, after which it is filtered and used for spraying.
Foliar top dressing of tomatoes with ash deters aphids and other pests. After treatment, the resistance of plants to powdery mildew and other lesions is increased.
Spraying of ash is carried out at the stage of flowering plants. It is allowed to combine ashes and boric acid in one solution.
Serum from sour milk contains beneficial bacteria that can protect tomatoes from fungal diseases. After spraying on the foliage, a film is formed, which serves as an obstacle for bacteria.
The instructions on how to make the solution for spraying is very simple. To do this, the serum is diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio.
For prevention, tomatoes are treated every 10 days. If there are signs of phytophthora or other diseases, it is allowed to perform the procedure daily.
For foliar application, a solution of water (4 l), raw milk (1 l) and iodine (15 drops) is used. Such a complex fertilizer will provide plants with protection against harmful microorganisms.Important! Iodine is not added to whey to preserve beneficial lactic bacteria.
To protect tomatoes from phytophthora apply garlic sprays. They are prepared on the basis of 100 g of garlic (leaves or bulbs), which are crushed and filled with a glass of water. The mixture is left for a day, then filtered.Tip! The resulting marc is diluted in 10 liters of water. Additionally, 1 g of potassium permanganate is added to the solution.
Garlic sprays are performed every 10 days. Instead of garlic, you can use other herbs (nettle, sow thistle, dandelion, alfalfa). Such top dressing is effective at the flowering stage of tomatoes, since it saturates them with nitrogen, potassium, calcium.
Offroot processing has several advantages, which include the high efficiency of this method. Used for the treatment of chemicals, minerals and folk remedies. The purpose of the procedure is to saturate tomatoes with nutrients, protection from diseases and pests.