Every gardener dreams of getting a rich harvest. But it often happens that in a few days planting tomatoes become stained, the leaves turn brown, curl. All the work down the drain. The reason lies in late blight. Such a problem can threaten plantings not only in the greenhouse, but also in the open field.
The disease spores themselves can overwinter in the ground. It turns out that the struggle must begin with the disinfection of the soil. The question of how to cultivate the soil after phytophthora of tomatoes after an outburst is of interest to many gardeners. What is better to take, chemicals or biological agents, or resort to popular methods. Let's try to figure out how to properly and correctly cultivate the soil in order to save the crop of tomatoes from phytophthora.
What is phytophthora
To fight with the enemy had an effective result, you need to know it in person. Therefore, it is important to have at least superficial knowledge of late blight. Not so long ago this disease was referred to as fungal. But scientists have found that this is a special group of mycelial parasitic microorganisms. Their habitat is solanaceous crops, so the places of their cultivation have to be processed from time to time.
Oomycetes are mainly in the spore phase. They parasitize on diseased plants and soil. As soon as the air temperature rises above + 25 degrees, they begin active activity. They can leave their offspring even in a drop of water. Moreover, spores can spread through the air by wind and precipitation. Therefore, to avoid the presence of phytophthora on tomatoes is quite difficult.
As a rule, late blight of tomatoes is activated in July and August, when daily temperature drops are most pronounced. If the weather is dry, phytophthora activity slows down.
Phytophthora affects not only tomatoes and other solanaceous crops. Its spores crumble into the ground, where they can lie for a long time, until favorable conditions come. Frosts are not able to destroy the microspores either on plant residues or in the soil.Important! If there are signs of phytophthora on tomatoes, they should not be left at the site. Recycle the stems in only one way - burn.
Since it is almost impossible to completely get rid of the phytophthora of tomatoes, you will have to think about preventive measures. First of all, remove plant residues, secondly, to disinfect, heal the soil on the site.
There are three main soil treatment methods that gardeners use:
Consider how they operate and what funds will be required.
Compliance with agrotechnology
Since spores of phytophtoras can live for several years in the ground, when planting tomatoes, it is necessary to:
- Observe crop rotation.
- Do not plant tomatoes near potatoes.
- To plant tomatoes should be at a distance so that the air can circulate freely. Watering tomatoes should be abundant, but it is impossible to bring the soil to a swampy state - phytophtoras are ideal conditions for spores. Preventive agrotechnical measures should be taken in the autumn after the harvest of tomatoes.
- From autumn you need to dig up the ridge, where tomatoes were grown, dump way. A clod of land with disputes will turn up. It is necessary to dig up, deepening a shovel on the whole bayonet. Let not fully, but partly disputes may die.
- In the spring, before planting tomatoes, the soil can be scalded with boiling water, adding potassium permanganate to the water. If the land is treated in a greenhouse, then all windows and doors are closed. A bed in an open ground is covered with a film on top.
Phytophthora is not a new disease, our ancestors knew about it. In those days there was no chemistry. Our grandmothers and grandfathers invented their methods of dealing with the blight of tomatoes, which gardeners still use today. If the disease is not very angry at the site, then they will be effective. You can use traditional methods as a preventive measure - there will be no harm, because the products are fertilizers.
- One liter of fermented kefir is poured into a bucket of water. They sprayed tomatoes and soil under them.
- Whey helps in the fight against tomato blight. Take an equal amount of serum and water for spraying the soil and plants. You can add a few drops of such an antiseptic, as iodine.
- The straw or hay must be filled with a bucket of water, adding a little urea. Infusion stand up to 5 days. Watering the soil under the tomatoes every 10 days.
- Our grandmothers used wood ash for dry or wet processing from phytophthora. To prepare a solution of 500 grams of ash, 40 grams of laundry soap (grated on a grater) is placed in a three-liter jar and filled with water. After the soap is dissolved, spray tomatoes and a garden bed. Row spacing between plantings of tomatoes can be sprinkled with a layer of ash on a pre-moistened soil.
- Good for processing soil and tomatoes to use a solution of skim milk (skim milk). In a ten-liter watering can pour one liter of skim milk, add iodine (15 drops). Bring to 10 liters and watered the soil under two tomatoes.
- Sow on the siderata beds.
What is interesting folk methods? It is not necessary to wait for some time between treatments. Such funds can be combined, alternate processing of tomatoes and the earth from the phytophthora.
If the phytophthora is not too rampant on the site, you can do with biological preparations. They are safe for cultivated land, animals and humans. Among the most effective drugs used for treating soil from late blight include:
- Baikal EM-1;
- Baikal EM-5.
They need to be put into the ground two weeks before the onset of frost before digging the ground.
Gardeners consider biologically active fungicides to be no less valuable for working the land from phytophthora:
- Baktofit and Trichodermin;
- Planzir and Alirin B;
- Fitosporin, Fitotsid M and some others.
These drugs are made in accordance with the instructions in the autumn after the ground has been perekopan. In early spring, immediately after the snowmelt, the treatment must be repeated.
How to treat the land with fungicides: dissolve the required amount of the substance in the water and shed the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
Consider working with some drugs:
- Phytosporin is used for autumn and spring treatment of the site from phytophthora. 6 ml of substance are added to 10 liters of water. This solution is enough for one square. Watering can be repeated during plant growth.
- As part of Trichodermine active spores and mycelium of the fungus Trichoderma lignorum. Thanks to him, the blight of the blight spores die. For watering plants and soil enough 100 ml per ten-liter bucket of water.
Chemistry in the arsenal of gardeners
In the case when agrotechnical methods, folk remedies and biological preparations did not help get rid of blight, you will have to use chemistry. To do this, suitable drugs with 3 or 4 class of danger. Before treating tomatoes with chemicals, you need to carefully read the instructions.
After digging the soil in the fall of the harvest, the land is treated with Bordeaux mixture. This procedure is repeated in the spring.
The liquid contains copper sulphate, it disinfects the soil and fills the need for sulfur and copper. Bordeaux liquid can spray tomatoes and process the soil. If spraying of plants can be carried out annually, then the soil is only once in 5 years.A warning! When working with liquid, you must take precautions.
You can also use a 4% solution of copper oxychloride, or a 2% solution of Oxyhoma.
During the planting of tomatoes, each well is spilled with Quadris, Bravo, Home. Any chemical drug should be used strictly according to the instructions.
Only complex measures can relieve the soil from phytophthora. Remember that tillage should be done systematically every fall and spring.Attention! Any preparations, regardless of their composition, must penetrate into the ground to a depth of at least 10 cm.
It is in this layer that spores of phytophthora parasitize.
How to treat the soil from late blight:
Let's sum up
Phytophthora annoys not only beginners, but also gardeners with experience. It is not so easy to get rid of this disease: disputes are very tenacious. In addition, they have the ability to be transported by air from neighboring areas. As smart people say, the main thing is not fighting against an illness, but its prevention.Important! Preventive measures in the fight against late blight should be carried out rigorously.
We hope that our advice will benefit:
- When planting plants try to observe a distance sufficient for air circulation.
- The lower leaves should not be in contact with the ground.
- If the tomatoes are planted in the greenhouse, constantly air it, do not let the high humidity. Watering need tomatoes in the morning.
- To strengthen the immune system of plants, use phosphate and potash fertilizers.
- In addition to soil treatment, disinfect tools, ridge walls and greenhouses. Pegs or strings to tie up the tomatoes in a solution of Bordeaux liquid.
Comprehensive measures for the processing of soil by various means will help to grow a crop of tasty and healthy tomatoes.
How to save the earth: