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Spraying tomatoes in the greenhouse

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It's no secret that getting a good crop of tomatoes at any time of the year is possible only in the greenhouse. Thus, it is possible to create the most favorable conditions for these delicate plants. But even growing tomatoes in greenhouse conditions must adhere to the basic rules of care, as well as regularly feed the tomatoes. Now we will learn how to process tomatoes in the greenhouse in order to get a generous harvest.

The benefits of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse

Many will agree that in the open field you can get a good harvest of tomatoes. This culture is undemanding to care and conditions. But in order to get a more generous harvest, many gardeners prefer to grow tomatoes in greenhouses and greenhouses. Undoubtedly, in such conditions, tomatoes will feel much better than in the garden. The advantage is that it is much easier to care for this crop in the greenhouse.

Nevertheless, it will be necessary to make some efforts to grow beautiful and tasty tomatoes. First of all, it is necessary to make the greenhouse itself. The best material today is polycarbonate. In such a greenhouse tomatoes feel very comfortable.

You must also create the necessary conditions for growing tomatoes. In principle, the care of these plants in the open field and in greenhouse conditions is not much different. The advantage of the greenhouse can be considered the fact that it is easier to maintain the required temperature in it. Tomatoes feel best at temperatures from 22 ° C to 25 ° C. Due to this temperature regime it is possible to achieve an earlier harvest. It is also very important to create good lighting for tomatoes. Due to lack of light, the plants become sluggish and strongly retarded in growth. The first sign of poor lighting is pulling sprouts.

Important! To make tomatoes grow faster, artificial lighting is additionally used in greenhouses.

Requirements for greenhouse tomatoes

No matter how comfortable the greenhouse was, for the normal growth and fruiting of tomatoes the following conditions are necessary:

  1. The soil should be saturated with calcium. This element is responsible for flowering, and also prevents the appearance of black spots on the tomatoes. For the introduction of this trace element in the soil using a solution of calcium nitrate.
  2. Tomatoes simply need elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. To saturate the soil with these nutrients often use complex fertilizer "Azofoska".
  3. The soil in the greenhouse should not be too wet or dry. A good loose soil is necessary for good tomato growth. Light clay and sandy loam is perfect. It retains moisture well and does not allow the soil to dry out. In order to create suitable conditions for tomatoes, if necessary, peat or sawdust for fertilizer should be added to clayey soil, and only peat to sandy soil.

Attention! Planting tomatoes in the greenhouse begin in mid-May. In the northern regions of the country, this should be done a little later, focusing on weather conditions.

Tomato care

The first processing of tomatoes in the greenhouse takes place 2 weeks after planting. To do this, use a solution of mullein. To prepare the nutrient mixture must be mixed:

  • 1 tablespoon of nitrophobia;
  • 0.5 liters of mullein;
  • 10 liters of water.

Tomatoes are watered with this mixture at the rate of one liter of liquid per bush. The following feeding is carried out no earlier than 10 days. For the preparation of solutions, you can use potassium sulfate and ready-mixed mixture of trace elements. The number of ingredients is measured according to the instructions.

Caring for tomatoes means not only regular feeding, but also timely watering of the seedlings. In this case, it is necessary to know the measure, since too much moisture can appear poorly on the state of the plants. Stagnant water in the soil will contribute to the appearance of fungal diseases and rot. Experienced gardeners noticed that it is necessary to water the tomatoes no more than 1 time in 5 days. Many people make the mistake of watering tomato seedlings too often after planting in the greenhouse ground.

Tip! The first 10 days to water the tomatoes is undesirable.

The first thing they have to do is get used to the new place and get well rooted.

Attention! Water temperature for irrigation of tomatoes should be at least 20 ° C.

You should also consider the stages of growth of tomatoes. About 5 liters of water per 1 m is enough before seedlings start flowering2. When the tomatoes begin to bloom, they will need a lot more liquid. At this time, volumes increase to 10 liters. The best results can be achieved if you water the tomatoes in the morning, or at least in the evening. It is also necessary to maintain the correct temperature in the greenhouse. In warm weather, the air temperature in the greenhouse should not be less than 20 ° C, and in cloudy weather not more than 19 ° C. We can not allow sudden surges at night. At this time, the normal temperature is around 16-18 ° C. This temperature is acceptable for tomatoes until they begin to bloom.

After the start of flowering of tomatoes, the temperature in the greenhouse should increase significantly and be at least 25-30 ° C. At night, jumps up to 16 ° C are allowed. The next change in temperature occurs after the first fruits begin to ripen. During this period, about 17 ° C is sufficient for tomatoes. This temperature is perfect for tomatoes to ripen.

No less important stage in the care of tomatoes - pasynkovanie. One-time this procedure will not be possible, since young stepchildren will appear during the entire growing season.

Tip! About 5 brushes should be left on the bush; all the rest should be removed.

4 weeks before the growing season is over, you need to remove the tops of the plants. And immediately after the tomatoes begin to turn red, you should remove all the lower leaves. Such procedures are also carried out in the morning. It is also important to remember that pathogens of various diseases can remain in the ground last year. To prevent their occurrence, every spring the soil in the greenhouse should be changed to a new one.

Tomato processing from pests

Most often, tomato seedlings suffer from caterpillars. These insects eat not only the leaves of various plants, but also the fruits of tomatoes. Moreover, their gaze is not directed at ripe fruits, namely, green and immature. Keeping these pests "hot" can be difficult, as they go out to eat mostly at night. The full name of this insect is the caterpillar of a garden moth. It has a large enough size and can spoil a lot of harvest. Very small caterpillars eat only the leaves, but as they grow older, they switch to the fruits of tomatoes.

If you saw openings of different shapes on tomatoes, be sure that the caterpillars have been here. To get rid of annoying insects, use special insecticides. It may be biological products. Treating bushes with these means will best protect your crop.

Tip! You can also collect insects from the bushes with your own hands. This should be done late in the evening or in the morning, when the caterpillars are active.

No less common pests of tomatoes are slugs, whiteflies and spider mites. All of them are very dangerous, as they can completely destroy the crop of tomatoes. To prevent this from happening, one should immediately begin the struggle at the first sign of defeat. To get rid of the whitefly, tomatoes are sprayed with a solution of "Confidor". To fight slugs, it is necessary to break through the soil in a garden with tomatoes, and then sprinkle it with bitter ground pepper. At 1 square meter will need a teaspoon of pepper. And in order to get rid of spider mites, tomato bushes should be treated with means "Karbofos." Also suitable infusion made from garlic, liquid soap and dandelion leaves.

Disease prevention

Completely get rid of the larvae of pests, bacteria and fungal disputes is almost impossible. They can remain on the greenhouse itself, in the soil and in plant residues. Therefore, gardeners use various methods to prevent the onset of signs of disease in tomatoes.

Important! Since both potatoes and tomatoes are attacked by the same pests, it is not advisable to plant them side by side.

To play it safe and be confident in obtaining the harvest, it is better to plant in one greenhouse not one, but several varieties of tomato. Each variety reacts differently to pathogens. It is also impossible to guess exactly what sort of tomato this year will be the best to bear fruit. In this case, even if one of the varieties becomes sick, it will be easier to fight the disease than if all the tomatoes got sick.

If you do not change the soil in the greenhouse every year, then it is important to remember that tomatoes should not be planted after crops such as peppers, potatoes and eggplants. All of them belong to the family Solanaceae. And it is possible to plant such crops in the same soil only after 3 or 4 years.

To get tomato seedlings to get enough light and air, they should be planted at a distance of about 50 cm. When caring for plants, it is also necessary to observe hygiene of hands and equipment. This should be done in order not to spread pathogens. First of all, you should thoroughly wash your hands before working with plants and directly during their care. Also, do not forget about the purity of inventory. All shovels, hoes and hoses must be clean. If a new plant is planted in a greenhouse, before it needs to be processed. By following these simple rules, you can protect tomato seedlings from diseases and pests.

Important! For strong immunity, tomatoes need good lighting.

Without enough sunlight, the seedlings will become sluggish and weak. Namely, to such plants all pests are introduced first of all.

Tomato processing for fungal diseases

In order for fungi to appear in the greenhouse, it is enough just to disturb the normal level of humidity. It is the increased soil moisture that is the best breeding ground for fungal diseases. These include blackleg, late blight, septoriosis and anthracnose.

Prevention of phytophtora carried out at the seedling stage. This disease has recently become widespread. Many cultures suffer from it, and even the strongest substances cannot always get rid of it once and for all. Experts say that such a strong spread of this disease occurred due to changes in the population of fungi.

The fact is that a disease like phytophtora unites at least 50 different fungi. It is also called mold and brown rot. It spreads phytophthora due to low temperature and increased humidity. It is water that carries the spores of fungi that trigger the disease. The first alarm for gardeners may be the appearance of condensation on the walls. This means that it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse more often.

As a prevention of late blight, the following substances can be used to spray tomato seedlings:

  • kefir;
  • copper sulphate;
  • Bordeaux mixture;
  • infusion of garlic.

To prepare the kefir solution, you must mix 5 liters of water with 0.5 liters of kefir. Spray the bushes every 7 days with this mixture.

To sprinkle tomatoes in a greenhouse with infusion of garlic, you need to combine in one container:

  • 1 cup ground garlic;
  • 5 liters of water;
  • 0.5 grams of potassium permanganate diluted in hot water.

For the prevention of disease, you can use only one specific method or alternate several ways. Modern varieties have a higher resistance to late blight. But it should be remembered that absolutely any tomato can be susceptible to this disease.

Another common fungus that affects tomato seedlings is anthracnose. Very often, the seeds are already infected with the disease. They are easy to identify, as the seedlings of them will be sluggish and quickly die. If the infection occurs later, then the root system and the fruits often suffer. To prevent the occurrence of the disease, seeds for seedlings must be soaked in Immunocytophitis.

Blackleg, which very often affects tomato seedlings, can occur due to bacteria and fungi. Therefore, it is impossible to determine exactly whether this disease is bacterial or fungal. A black leg appears due to the increased humidity in the greenhouse. First of all, weakened and sluggish plants suffer from the disease. The disease manifests itself in the root system of tomatoes. At first they darken, and then begin to rot. Of course, as a result, the plant dies. To combat the black leg use a pink solution of manganese. You can also use purchased products such as Fitosporin, Baktofit and Fitolavin.

Important! If the soil is too wet, you must stop watering the bushes.

Fungi also provoke a disease such as septoria. It is manifested by the appearance of off-white spots on the leaves. If time does not begin treatment, the spots may spread to the entire surface of the sheet. In the future, the leaves simply wither and fall off. Although the disease does not affect the fruit, but the general condition of the bushes will not allow to grow a good crop.

To combat septoria, it is necessary to treat bushes with fungicides 2 times a month. Using these tools, you need to be very careful. They are effective for fighting diseases, but can harm human health. So when using, be sure to protect the skin and mucous membranes.

Fight against bacterial diseases

There are a lot of bacteria provoking various diseases of tomatoes. These diseases can significantly reduce the yield of tomatoes or even destroy plants. Also, the quality and appearance of the fruit suffers from diseases. The most dangerous bacterial disease is tomato stolbur. The first thing it appears on the leaves and tops of the plants, they twist and turn white. The trunk of the tomato, as well as the fruits lignified. Because of this, the taste and appearance of the fruit spoils. It is necessary to start the fight against this pathogen immediately. For this it is necessary to carry out several stages of processing bushes:

  1. Treatment with insecticides during transplanting into the ground.
  2. When the bushes start to bloom, you need to spray the plants with antibiotics.
  3. During the formation of ovaries should be fertilized to increase immunity. To do this, use organic and mineral fertilizers.

The next dangerous enemy of tomatoes is black bacterial blotch. This disease can appear in the most different periods of growth of tomatoes. The whole plant is covered with watery spots. Over time, these spots only increase and become black in color. To protect seedlings from this disease, should be timely prevention. To do this, you must regularly disinfect the greenhouse, and in the fall and spring to remove all remnants of last year’s crops and weeds. You can prevent the appearance of black spot with antibiotics. You can spray the plants with a solution of Farmod or Bordeaux mixture.

Bacteria that provoke the appearance of wet rot are carried by insects. You can determine the infection by the places of pest bites. Watery spots appear on these fruits, and the skin cracks, which is why tomatoes begin to rot. Conducting general prevention of tomatoes from fungi and viruses, you can protect your crop. Additionally it is advised to use microbiological substances. Such preparations as "Binoram", "Alirin", "Gaupsin" will perfectly suit.

Important! To fight the disease was effective, treatment must begin immediately at the first sign of infection.

Microbiological preparations are completely safe for the human body. In their composition are microorganisms that help plants produce natural toxins that kill pests.

Spraying tomatoes for viral infections

Viral diseases are no less dangerous for tomatoes than fungal and bacterial. Viral infections may not immediately manifest, so it will be more difficult to deal with them. The most common such viral diseases:

  • aspermia or seedlessness;
  • mosaic of tomatoes;
  • internal necrosis;
  • banded spotting or streak.

The emergence of such diseases can provoke poor ventilation of the greenhouse, increased soil moisture, improper feeding mode. Viruses can remain in last year's plants or in seed for seedlings.

Having noticed the signs of manifestation of certain diseases, it is necessary to increase the air temperature in the greenhouse and, if necessary, to improve the illumination. Then the spread of the disease will slow down significantly.

Conclusion

Planting tomatoes in their plot, all gardeners expect only the most generous harvest. But, it is important to remember that without the right care this is simply not feasible. Tomatoes respond well to the introduction of mineral and organic substances. Also do not forget about the prevention of various diseases. Plants will certainly thank you for the beautiful and tasty fruits.

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